The Bible has been hugely influential on human history for centuries upon centuries, and is the primary written source of spiritual beliefs for several major world religions. These are articles I’ve written when studying the Bible from a critical, secular, academic perspective. I hold the Bible in high regard as a collection of literature, and try to handle it with care when studying it. Some may consider the findings of these articles incompatible with their religious beliefs. No disrespect or offense is intended.


I read my sources directly and I cite them when necessary. I write all the content of my articles. I occasionally update articles to correct typos, grammatical errors, poor wording, or errant information. I create my own graphics or I modify public domain art. I create and code my website theme. I refuse to use generative AI in any form.

Mark Edward

Other than a handful of elective classes from university, I have no professional training in biblical academics. I study the Bible as a hobby. Sometimes questions I have while I'm reading stay with me, and I try to research them. Occasionally I organize my notes, type them up, and they end up here. My primary interests are source criticism, and eschatology and apocalypticism.