Exploring the common tropes of the genre.

Book of the Watchers

c 300 BCE

Book of Lights

250–200 BCE

Testament of Levi 1–5

250–150 BCE

Revelation of Weeks

200–175 BCE


167–164 BCE

Book of Dreams

167–130 BCE

Revelation of Zephaniah

100 BCE – 70 CE

Book of Parables

40 BCE – 70 CE

Synoptic Gospels

75–115 CE

Revelation of John

60–100 CE

4 Ezra

85–96 CE

Revelation of Abraham

70–150 CE

3 Baruch

70–200 CE

2 Baruch

95–115 CE

Shepherd of Hermas

100–150 CE

Revelation of Peter

120–150 CE


Testament of Abraham

2 Enoch

3 Enoch

Sibylline Oracles

Treatise of Shem

Apocryphon of Ezekiel

Greek Revelation of Ezra

Vision of Ezra

Questions of Ezra

Revelation of Ezra

Revelation of Sedrach

Revelation of Elijah

Revelation of Daniel

Ascension of Isaiah

Ladder of Jacob

4 Baruch

Jannes & Jambres

Eldad & Modad


Carol Meyers & Eric Meyers, Haggai, Zechariah 1–8

Carolyn Osiek, The Shepherd of Hermas

George Nickelsburg & James VanderKam, 1 Enoch 1: A Commentary on the Book of 1 Enoch, Chapters 1–36; 81–108

George Nickelsburg & James VanderKam, 1 Enoch 2: A Commentary on the Book of 1 Enoch, Chapters 37–82

James Charlesworth (editor), The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha: Volume 1: Apocalyptic Literature & Testaments

James Crenshaw, Joel

John Collins, The Apocalyptic Imagination: An Introduction to the Jewish Apocalyptic Literature

John Collins, Daniel

Loren Stuckenbruck, 1 Enoch 91–108

Maxwell Davidson, Angels at Qumran: A Comparative Study of 1 Enoch 1–36; 72–108 and Sectarian Writings from Qumran

Michael Stone, Fourth Ezra